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Title: Diesel low temperature combustion: an experimental study
Authors: Sarangi, Asish
Keywords: Low temperature combustion
LTC
Split injection
Two-colour pyrometry
EGR
In-cylinder visualization
Transient
Soot
PM
NOx
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: © Asish Kumar Sarangi
Abstract: Diesel engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter can be reduced simultaneously through the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve low temperature combustion (LTC). Although the potential benefits of diesel LTC are clear, the main challenges to its practical implementation are the requirement of EGR levels that can exceed 60%, high fuel consumption, and high unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. These limit the application of LTC to medium loads. In order to implement the LTC strategy in a passenger vehicle engine, a transition to conventional diesel operation is required to satisfy the expected high load demands on the engine. The investigation presented in this thesis was therefore aimed at improving the viability of the high-EGR LTC strategy for steady-state and transient operation. An experimental investigation was carried out on a single cylinder high-speed direct injection diesel engine. This thesis presents research on engine in-cylinder performance and engine-out gaseous and particulate emissions at operating conditions (i.e. EGR rate, intake pressure, fuel quantity, injection pressure) likely to be encountered by an engine during transient and steady-state operation. At selected operating points, further investigation in terms of in-cylinder spray and combustion visualization, flame temperature and soot concentration measurements provided deeper insight into the combustion and emissions phenomena. Increased intake pressure at single injection high-EGR LTC operation was investigated as a strategy to reduce the emissions of partial combustion by-products and to improve fuel economy. The higher intake pressure, although effective in reducing partial combustion by-products emissions and improving fuel economy, increased the EGR requirement to achieve LTC. A split fuel injection strategy with advanced injection timing on the other hand was effective in reducing the EGR requirement for LTC from 62% with single injection to 52% with split injections at 120 kPa (absolute) intake pressure. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions and fuel economy were particularly sensitive to intake oxygen mass fraction, and injection and dwell timings with the split injection strategy. In-cylinder soot formation and oxidation mechanisms with the split injection strategy were found to be significantly different from the single injection high-EGR LTC case. Transient simulation of an engine during combustion mode transition identified engine operating parameters on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Steady-state investigation of these test conditions provided significant insight into the combustion conditions and their effect on emissions and performance. The results from this thesis demonstrated the importance of optimizing both the air handling system performance and the fuel injection system during engine transients. The increased emissions and impaired performance due to slow response of the EGR and turbocharger systems during transitions to and from LTC modes can in part be mitigated through split injections optimized for the specific transient point. This provides a clear direction for engine developers to pursue in optimizing engine calibration when running with LTC-conventional diesel dual-mode strategies.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/10192
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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