Multi electrode array (MEA) systems have evolved from custom-made experimental tools, exploited
for neural research, into commercially available systems that are used throughout non-invasive
electrophysiological study. MEA systems are used in conjunction with cells and tissues from a
number of differing organisms (e.g. mice, monkeys, chickens, plants). The development of MEA
systems has been incremental over the past 30 years due to constantly changing specific bioscientific
requirements in research. As the application of MEA systems continues to diversify contemporary
commercial systems are requiring increased levels of sophistication and greater throughput
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.