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Title: Production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) using ion exchange resins as catalysts
Authors: Zainal-Abidin-Murad, Sumaiya
Keywords: Anion exchange resin
Batch reactor
Batch kinetic modelling
Biodiesel
Cation exchange resin
Esterification
Free fatty acids
Heterogeneous catalysis
Transesterification
Catalyst reusability
Triglycerides
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: © Sumaiya Zainal Abidin
Abstract: This study focuses on the development of novel two-stage esterification-transesterification synthesis of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) using novel heterogeneous catalysts. The esterification of the UCO was investigated using three types of ion exchange resins catalysts including Purolite D5081, Purolite D5082 and Amberlyst 15. Of all the catalysts investigated, Purolite D5081 resin showed the best catalytic performance and was selected for further optimisation studies. From the optimisation study, it was found that the external and internal mass transfer resistance has negligible effect on the esterification reaction. At the optimum reaction conditions, Purolite D5081 achieved 92% conversion of FFA. During reusability study, the conversion of FFA dropped by 10% after each cycle and it was found that progressive pore blockage and sulphur leaching were dominant factors that decreased the catalytic performance of the Purolite D5081 catalyst. A kinetic modelling for FFA esterification was carried out using Purolite D5081 as a catalyst. Three types of kinetic models were investigated i.e. pseudo homogeneous (PH), Eley-Rideal (ER) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW). Experimental data obtained from the batch kinetic studies was successfully represented by the PH model and a good agreement between experimental and calculated values was obtained. The activation energy for esterification and hydrolysis reaction was found to be 53 and 107 kJ/moL. The transesterification of pre-treated cooking oil (P-UCO) was investigated using various types of heterogeneous catalysts including Purolite CT-122, Purolite CT-169, Purolite CT-175, Purolite CT-275, Purolite D5081, Diaion PA306s and Cs-supported heteropolyacids catalysts. Of all the catalysts investigated, Diaion PA306s catalyst showed the highest conversion of triglycerides and was selected for further optimisation studies. At the optimum reaction conditions, Diaion PA306s achieved ca. 75% of triglycerides conversion. During the reusability study, Diaion PA306s catalyst gave a similar conversion of triglycerides after being reused once. Therefore, it was concluded that the resin can be used several times without losing catalytic activity. Several purification methods have been investigated and dry washing method was chosen as the best alternative for biodiesel purification.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/10276
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Chemical Engineering)

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