In the field of high performance primary battery
systems lithium anoded cells have been shown to have an
excellent performance and extremely good shelf life. The
major drawback with the lithium technology is one of safety,
whereby abuse conditions (such as charging of the cell) lead
to an unstable system with the very real possibility of a
cell explosion. For a commercially available cell
consideration of safety issues would preclude the marketing
of a high performance lithium cell for general use, rather,
it will be reserved for specialist e.g. Military use where
the personnel having contact with the power source can be
trained in its safe operation.
The work described in this thesis is concerned with the
development of a high performance battery system utilising
calcium as the anode material. Calcium has received
attention as an anode material for a high performance
battery system because it removes many of the safety
problems associated with lithium. The major disadvantages of
calcium have been addressed namely the shelf life and
discharge performance. The electrochemical techniques of
cyclic voltammetry and a.c. impedance have been used in
conjunction with physical methods such as scanning electron
microscopy to define the mode of operation of these cells.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.