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|Title: ||Non conventional sewerage in developing countries|
|Authors: ||Vines, Marcus|
|Issue Date: ||1991|
|Publisher: ||© Marcus Vines|
|Abstract: ||This thesis reports the findings of a search of the literature on non conventional sewerage
(NCS) systems in developing countries. The thesis also contains information obtained by
personal communication with people and institutions having first hand experience of such
The opening chapter surveys the range of sanitation systems that have been implemented in
low income urban areas in developing countries. It summarizes the problems associated with
them, paying particular attention to those reported in connection with so-called "conventional"
sewerage schemes. The various sewerage systems put forward in the literature as being
unconventional are introduced. It is noted that many of them have yet to be implemented.
In the second chapter the technical design of NCS systems is examined in relation to the
range of design values and practices used in conventional sewerage schemes. This leads to four
broad conclusions. Firstly, the primary objective of nearly all NCS design has been the reduction
of costs. Secondly, NCS systems may be divided into two categories according to whether or not
they incorporate interceptor tanks designed to prevent the bulk of the solids contained in excreta
and sullage from entering the sewer lines. Thirdly, both NCS and conventional systems have
been designed according to a wide range of specifications, although the latter appear never to
have used interceptor tanks. Fourthly, there is a substantial amount of common ground between
NCS and conventional design practice, and in particular between NCS designs without
interceptor tanks and conventional sewerage.
The third chapter reports the social, institutional and financial aspects of NCS projects,
although conSiderably less information was found on these matters compared with that available
on technical design. A shared feature of many systems is the emphasis on the importance of
achieving a high level of community involvement in one or more of the four stages of project
planning, building, maintenance and financing. The penultimate chapter focuses on NCS costs and on how successful implemented NCS
systems have been. Success is defined in terms of:
- how widely they have been utilized;
- how well they have functioned; and
- their health and other impacts.
For many systems, the available information is inadequate, particularly in relation to functioning
and impact. The only places where NCS appears to have been at all widely utilized are Orangi
Town, a large squatter settlement near Karachi in Pakistan, and the States of Rio Grande do Norte
and Sao Paulo in Brazil.
The final chapter contains conclusions abcrut NCS design and about the relative success and
failure achieved by the different NCS systems. Suggestions for further research are made in the
light of the information gaps and the varied design, implementation and operating practices
revealed during the course of the study.|
|Description: ||A Master's Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Version: ||Not specified|
|Appears in Collections:||MPhil Theses (Civil and Building Engineering)|
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