Within this body of work several series of experiments will investigate the nature of complex combustion in an experimental single-cylinder engine emulating a modern passenger car size compression-ignition (CI) engine. Regimes of single, piloted single and piloted split-main injections will be tested and compared in terms of combustion characteristics, specific emission output and cyclic behaviour to determine how increased injection complexity affects the emissions and output of the modern CI engine. Through these tests, the effect of fuel-line stationary waves will be demonstrated and investigated, showing conclusively that optimised engine calibration is essential to account for injector-generated waves in any multiple injection scenario. This data will then be confirmed with a dedicated analysis using an injector rate measuring tube.
The tests will then be expanded to include examination into the behaviour of injector needle-lift standard deviation over its operating cycle, in-cylinder pressure standard deviation behaviour and trends over the combustion cycle as well as IMEP variability. Through these tests a novel method to detect start of combustion will be proposed and compared to conventional methods.
Low temperature combustion (LTC) will be tested under incremental injection complexity. Tests will be optimised for combustion phasing and injection pressure, with a view to analysis of emissions, output and cyclic behaviour to establish whether the knowledge gained about conventional combustion holds true under LTC. Optimization of engine parameters will be shown to result in easier to implement LTC regimes with superior emissions characteristics.
Finally, LTC tests will be expanded to include 30% and 50% by volume gas-to-liquid fuel (GTL) blends in order to determine whether fuel characteristics further influence emissions, output and cyclic behaviour in LTC through complex injection regimes. How GTL-blend ratio affects trends in emissions and cyclic behaviour will also be examined and compared to conventional diesel fuel.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.