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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/10966

Title: Manual pit emptying as a sustainable livelihood in Ghana
Authors: Nkansah, Andrews
Fisher, Julie
Sohail (Khan), M.
Keywords: Public health
Developing countries
Waste management and disposal
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: © ICE Publishing Ltd.
Citation: NKANSAH, A., FISHER, J. and SOHAIL, M., 2012. Manual pit emptying as a sustainable livelihood in Ghana. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability, 165 (3), pp. 215 - 221.
Abstract: On-plot sanitation is vital in many low-income country urban areas. Pit emptying is critical to its sustainability and small-scale manual emptiers play a key role in this. This paper investigates the sustainability of manual pit emptying as a livelihood option, focusing on the key sustainable livelihood factors relating to the human, social, physical and financial capitals of manual emptiers. These relate to: their role as emptiers; the employment systems and equipment; their health, well-being, social status and the acceptability of the job they do. The paper concludes that the current state of pit-emptying practice does not represent a sustainable long-term livelihood option for manual pit emptiers, as long as it continues with no improvements in technology, insufficient financial incentives and inadequate health and safety measures. Recommendations to improve sustainability include: improvements in emptying technology; provision of subsidies and free medical care; and health and safety education.
Description: This article was published in the journal, Proceedings of the ICE: Engineering Sustainability [© ICE Publishing Ltd.]. The journal's website is at: www.sustainabilityjournal.com and the definitive version of the paper is available at: http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/content/article/10.1680/ensu.10.00056
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1680/ensu.10.00056
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/10966
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/ensu.10.00056
ISSN: 1478-4629
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering)
Published Articles (WEDC)

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