CHRISTODOULOU, C. ... et al., 2012. Diagnosing the cause of incipient anodes in repaired reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion Science, 69, pp. 123–129.
The incipient anode (or halo) effect often occurs on repaired reinforced concrete structures. The diagnosis
of this problem is widely reported to be macrocell activity. This diagnosis is based on very limited data.
Indeed potential measurements on field structures repaired with proprietary materials have provided
data that suggest that macrocell activity is not a cause of incipient anode formation. Alternative mechanisms
that may cause incipient anode activity include repair/parent material interface effects, residual
chloride contamination within the parent concrete, and/or vibration damage to the steel/parent concrete
interface during repair area preparation.