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Title: Car seat design and human-body modelling for rear impact whiplash mitigation
Authors: Himmetoglu, Selcuk
Keywords: Car seat design
Whiplash
Energy absorbing car seats
Rear impact
Multibody head-and-neck model
Human-body model
Volunteer sle tests
Validation
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: © Selcuk Himmetoglu
Abstract: Whiplash is a neck injury caused by the sudden differential movement between the head and torso. Whiplash injuries are most commonly reported as a consequence of rear impacts in car accidents. They are regarded as minor injuries, but can still lead to long-term disablement and discomfort in the neck. Whiplash injuries can be mitigated by better car seat designs. For this purpose, head restraint geometry must be improved first, and then the dynamic performance of the whole seat must be assessed at all crash seventies. A biofidelic human-body model is a key requirement in designing whiplash mitigating car seats. This thesis presents the development of a 50th percentile male multi-body human model and several energy absorbing car seat designs. The human-body model is specifically designed for rear impact and validated using the responses of seven volunteers from Japanese Automobile Research Institute (JARI) sled tests, which were performed at an impact speed of 8 kph with a rigid seat and without head restraint and seat belt. A generic multi-body car seat model is also developed to implement various seatback and recliner properties, anti-whiplash devices (A WDs) and head restraints. Using the same driving posture and the rigid seat in the JARI sled tests as the basic configuration, several anti-whiplash seats are designed to allow different types of motion for the seatback and seat-pan. The major findings of this research are: -The human-body model simulates the effects of muscle contraction and its overall response is superior in comparison to the currently used models and dummies. -A criterion called the S-shape index (SSI) is developed based on the intervertebral angles of the upper and lower cervical spine. -The car seat design concepts are able to control and use crash energy effectively with the aid of anti-whiplash devices for a wide range of crash seventies. -In order to reduce whiplash injury risk, this study advocates energy absorbing car seats which can also provide head restraint contact as early as possible.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/11691
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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