The ground water regimes of three small, undisturbed (natural) and accessible hard rock
catchments representing the South, Midlands and the North of Great Britain have been
hydrogeologically investigated and compared.
There is a dearth of hydro geological information on hard rock areas in Britain. This is
because the general availability of surface water and extensive sedimentary aquifers has not
encouraged ground water prospecting in hard rock areas. In view of this, low flow study
was considered essential since geology exerts a great influence on its characteristics. This
was carried out using baseflow recession analysis.
From a combination of practical, empirical and theoretical considerations aided by statistical
analysis on a computer, baseflow recession constants which dynamically reflect the
physiographic and geologic controls within a catchment were derived for the catchments
investigated. These were used to characterise the behaviour of the low flows. A new
method which is free of random selection of data for baseflow recession analysis is
presented and a model for the curve fitting both by computer and manual methods are fully
discussed and its application is also presented.
Water balance computations for each of the three catchments is presented in chapter 2.
Lithological units were identified by a detailed geological study. These were further
investigated using resistivity and electromagnetic methods of geophysical survey.
Hydrogeological properties of the aquifers were investigated by pumping test analysis and
subsequent comparison of hydraulic conductivities from soils and baseflow studies.
A water chemistry investigation of spring, river and rain waters has been carried out to try
and defme flow paths of the ground water and this is presented in chapter 7.
From these investigations, this research concludes that large community water supplies
through boreholes can be economical only in one of the catchments (East Dart catchment).
In the other two catchments (Blackbrook and Calder catchments), small community and
household supplies are possible through boreholes (in some areas) and large diameter
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University of Technology.