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|Title: ||Conducents for the performance of experimental activity: an investigation into the development of modern science in Republican Turkey|
|Authors: ||Hopkins, Peter G.E.|
|Issue Date: ||1981|
|Publisher: ||© Peter G.E. Hopkins|
|Abstract: ||The aim of this thesis is to study the Turkish scientific
research community and, by means of a model concerning
scientific performance, to estimate the extent to which the
performance of Turkish research scientists over the past fifty
years has been and still is affected by their ideological and
Turkey presents a very interesting case-study of a nation with
Islamic roots which go back more than a thousand years and yet
which has seen enforced westernization since the founding of
the Republic in 1923. The systematic Republican policy to
westernize many of the administrative and socio-cultural
institutions included a vigorous attempt to develop western
scientific institutions. What scientific establishments
existed before the Republican era were few in number and were
almost all concerned with teaching alone rather than with original
research. Such establishments had been set up with the assistance
of foreign instructors and adviserR. There was no 'indigenous'
science as such since for centuries the Muslim Ottomans
had been largely indifferent and even hostile to knowledge which
was unrelated to the study and practice of Islam. Furthermore,
because the Ottomans did not engage in artisan labour but left
this to the ethnic minority groups, scant craft skills remained
among the Turks when the minorities were expatriated, died or
fled the country. Thus science in Turkey is almost entirely
the result of importation.
With the proclamation of the Republic, 'science' and 'scientific
thinking' were made the legitimation for some of the reforms
introduced by Mustafa Kemal (Atattirk) and his colleagues.
Ideological support for science has remained strong since 1923.
It has been backed up over the years by the establishment of a
number of institutions, mainly universities, at which research
can be done, and by the setting-up of a research council to
promote scientific research.
However, in spite of this&rong commitment to science by the
Republic, there are indicators which suggest that Turkish scientists do not produce good quality research work inside Turkey.
indicators will be considered in section I.5 below.
The question arises why this situation should obtain. Is a
fifty year period of strong commitment to science not long
enough for scientific institutions to become established?
What factors are needed to ensure that research scientists
produce original and high quality research? Which of these
are missing or deficient in the Turkish case? Moreover, are
these missing factors internal and less obvious, a result of
influences such as negative attitudes arising out of religious
belief and practice, or are they external and obvious, such as
supplie s and equipment?
This thesis sets out to examine these questions. At first,
it attempts to identify what internal and external factors are
prerequisite or conducive to the performance of scientific research
in a university setting. It then takes the Turkish scientific
research community which is found mainly in the (highly autonomous)
universities and concentrates on a particular segment of it which
appears to be less influenced by external factors than the others,
the group of scientists engaged in basic scientific research.
This provides opportunity to focus upon the influence of sociocultural
factors, which are often only looked at in passing in
favour of direct economic factors, while not ignoring the
influence of direct and indirect economic factors. At the same
time, this study does not look merely at the external and internal
factors affecting Turkish scientists now but attempts to trace
the historical development of the ideologies and institutions which
may have constituted to the formation and present state of these
|Description: ||Submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of
Doctor of Philosophy
of the Loughborough University of Technology
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Communication, Media, Social and Policy Studies)|
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