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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/11935

Title: Design data for footwear: sweating distribution on the human foot
Authors: Smith, Caroline J.
Machado-Moreira, Christiano A.
Plant, Gijs
Hodder, S.G.
Havenith, George
Taylor, Nigel A.S.
Keywords: Clothing
Footwear industry
Human physiology
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Citation: SMITH, C.J. ... et al, 2013. Design data for footwear: sweating distribution on the human foot. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 25 (1), pp.43-58.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide footwear designers, manikin builders and thermo-physiological modellers with sweat distribution information for the human foot. Design/methodology/approach – Independent research from two laboratories, using different techniques, is brought together to describe sweat production of the foot. In total, 32 individuals were studied. One laboratory used running at two intensities in males and females, and measured sweat with absorbents placed inside the shoe. The other used ventilated sweat capsules on a passive, nude foot, with sweating evaluated during passive heating and incremental exercise to fatigue. Findings – Results from both laboratories are in agreement. Males secreted more than twice the volume of sweat produced by the females (p<0.01) at the same relative work rate. Both genders demonstrated a non-uniform sweat distribution, though this was less variable in females. Highest local sweat rates were observed from the medial ankles (p<0.01). The dorsal foot sweated substantially more than the plantar (sole) areas (p<0.01). Sweating on the plantar side of the foot was uniform. Wearing shoes limited the increase in sweat production with increasing load, while the sweat rate of uncovered feet kept increasing with work and thermal load. Practical implications – The observed variation in sweat rate across the foot shows that footwear design should follow the body mapping principle. Fabrics and materials with different properties can be used to improve comfort if applied to different foot surfaces. The data also demonstrate that foot models, whether physical (manikins) or mathematical, need to incorporate the observed variation across the foot to provide realistic simulation/testing of footwear.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1108/09556221311292200
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/11935
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09556221311292200
ISSN: 0955-6222
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Design School)

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