CLELAND, J.A., 2010. From passive to active: the changing relationship between supporters and football clubs. Soccer and Society, 11 (5), pp. 537 - 552.
The changing relationship between football clubs and supporters has been the subject of recent debate but has received relatively limited empirical analysis based on case study research. This article draws on interviews and a questionnaire fan survey to assess the extent to which four football clubs had developed mechanisms to include ‘active’ supporters in club-related decisions. The article then examines the strategies put in place by each club to encourage supporter involvement and whether they have been successful in their actions. The results indicated that supporters of clubs which encouraged an inclusive relationship through the opportunity of two-way dialogue expressed greater satisfaction than supporters of clubs which maintained one-way dialogue. The article concludes by suggesting that those clubs which are seen to exclude ‘active’ supporters could face long-term financial consequences if they continue to operate in this way.