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Title: Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production
Authors: Haigh, Kathleen F.
Abidin, Sumaiya Z.
Vladisavljevic, Goran T.
Saha, Basu
Keywords: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)
Biodiesel
Free fatty acids (FFAs)
Esterification
Novozyme 435
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: © Elsevier Ltd.
Citation: HAIGH, K.F. ... et al., 2013. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production. Fuel, 111, pp.186-193.
Abstract: The catalytic performance of two types of catalysts, an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081 and an immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was compared for the esterification pretreatment of used cooking oil (UCO) for the preparation of biodiesel. The reactions were carried out using a jacketed batch reactor with a reflux condenser. The effect of mass transfer limitations was investigated and it was shown that internal and external mass transfer limitations were negligible. An immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was investigated because it has been shown to give high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. This catalyst has been compared to an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081, which was developed for the esterification of UCO for the production of biodiesel. It was found that a conversion of 94% was achieved using Purolite D5081 compared to 90% conversion with Novozyme 435. However, the optimum methanol to FFA ratio for Purolite D5081 was 98:1 compared to 6.2:1 for Novozyme 435. In addition, it has been found that with Novozyme 435 there are side reactions which result in the formation of additional fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and FFAs at longer reaction times.
Description: This article was published in the journal, Fuel [© Elsevier Ltd.] and the definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.04.056
Sponsor: We would like to thank EPSRC for the PhD scholarship to KH and Universiti Malaysia Pahang and Malaysian Government for the PhD scholarship to SZA. We would also like to thank Purolite International Ltd. (Mr. Brian Windsor and the late Dr. Jim Dale) for supplying the ion-exchange catalyst, GreenFuel Oil Co. Ltd., UK for supplying the UCO and Novozymes UK. Ltd. for supplying the enzyme catalyst ((Dr. David Cowan) for his help and advice with using Novozyme 435 for this project).
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.04.056
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/12418
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.04.056
ISSN: 0016-2361
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Chemical Engineering)

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