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|Title: ||Adsorption of organic micropollutants from water using Hypersol-Macronet polymers|
|Authors: ||Sweetland, Lee A.|
|Issue Date: ||1997|
|Publisher: ||© Lee A. Sweetland|
|Abstract: ||Hypersol-Macronet™ polymers have been evaluated for the adsorption of organic pollutants from
aqueous solution. The adsorption performance of the polymers was compared with a commercial
activated carbon, Chemviron F -400. Investigation into the physical structure of the adsorbents
was performed using microscopy and the adsorption of nitrogen at liquid nitrogen temperatures.
A critical analysis of the adsorption isotherm data reduction models is given. The polymers
possess a bimodal pore size distribution of micropores, approximately l3A in diameter, and
macropores, greater than 200A. The surface functionality of the Macronets, determined by
diffuse reflectance IR, 13C NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is presented. Elemental
analysis and direct titration techniques were also investigated. Relatively high concentrations
of oxygen containing functional groups were observed on the polymers, attributed to ethers,
alcohols and ketones formed during polymer production. Adsorption isotherms are given for
the removal of phenol and three chlorophenols substituted in the ortho, meta and para position.
The greater hydrophobicity of the chlorinated phenols resulted in stronger interaction energies
and larger adsorption capacities. Batch kinetic data for the above adsorbates was modelled using
the homogeneous surface diffusion correlations.
Analytical techniques were developed and validated for the determination of trace levels (0.1
parts per billion) of five pesticides; atrazine, simazine, isoproturon, diuron and chlorotoluron.
Single and multi-component adsorption isotherms are presented for trace concentrations of
pesticides in aqueous solution. Mini-column breakthrough curves are presented for MN-200 and
F-400. Selectivity of the polymers for the various pesticides was explained by differences in
molecular size and the hydrophobicity of the adsorbates. The primary adsorption mechanism is
hydrophobic interaction enhanced by hydrogen bonding. The negative influence of natural
organic matter (NOM) on the removal of pesticides was investigated using batch and column
techniques. The uptake of NOM on activated carbon is much greater than that on MN-200.
Total regeneration ofMN-200 using a variety of organic solvents was achieved for high and low
solid phase concentrations of pesticides. Regeneration of F-400 was ineffective. The
breakthrough point of a regenerated mini-column containing MN-200 was identical to the virgin
polymer data. The potential commercial application of the resin for the purification of drinking
water is discussed.|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Sponsor: ||Purolite International Ltd.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Chemical Engineering)|
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