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Title: Integration of geophysical methods for groundwater exploration in hard rock areas : application to Alla Valley, Eritrea, NE Africa
Authors: Derie, Bereket M.
Keywords: Alla
Eritrea
Hard rocks
Groundwater
Integrated geophysical methods
Electromagnetic conductivity
Electrical resistivity
Seismic refraction
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: © Bereket Mebrahtu Derie
Abstract: The integrated use of Electromagnetic Ground Conductivity, Ground Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Refraction geophysics methods was made in Alia valley, Eritrea for the aim of developing a methodology best suited for ground water exploration in hard rock areas with limited professional and financial resources. A total area of 25 square kilometer was covered with the geophysical surveys. The effective use of information from wells and geological information from outcrops and existing literature helped to create a preliminary conceptual hydrogeologic model that in turn provided a general picture of the research site in terms of its groundwater potential and related factors. The optimum configuration of the geophysical methods and their interpretation was researched by the use of synthetic mathematical models and experimental surveys in areas of known hydrogeological characteristics like lithology and depth of water table. Two approximately parallel electromagnetic ground conductivity profile lines crossed the survey area in approximately north-south direction to assess the variation in the electrical conductivity of the major geological structures. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys were conducted close to existing wells with lithological information and at some selected sites. Survey sites for the two dimensional electrical resistivity imaging and the seismic refraction surveys were selected based on the results from the electromagnetic ground conductivity surveys. The formal geophysical surveys results were correlated with nearby boreholes and with each other. The responses of the different geophysical methods for each lithological layer were recognized. In addition, the location and characteristics of the major geological structures of the area were studies based on the information from the geophysical surveys and other available information. At the end of the research, parts of the research area with better groundwater potential were identified. As a result of the research, an efficient and cost effective geophysical approach was developed for groundwater exploration in hard rock areas of Eritrea and similar places of the world. Recommendations were made on the wider and effective use of the approach with due consideration for the limited financial, human resource and material capacities available for ground water exploration in most countries of Africa and other countries of the world.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/12616
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Civil and Building Engineering)

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