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|Title: ||The modelling of spin generation with particular emphasis on racket ball games|
|Authors: ||Cottey, Robert A.|
|Issue Date: ||2002|
|Publisher: ||© Robert Cottey|
|Abstract: ||The use of spin in racket sports is vital in a player's shot portfolio to aid control and
accuracy coupled with increased difficulty for any opponent. Experts agree that the use
of spin is of considerable importance to the way in which the game is played, yet no
complete understanding or knowledge of the science has been developed.
A number of basic models exist, but these do not accurately predict the behaviour of
a high deformation oblique impact under dynamic conditions such as in the tennis ball
and racket string-bed situation.
This thesis provides a detailed explanation of the creation of spin for tennis, which
should be generically applicable to other racket sports. A mathematical model has been
developed which incorporates the significant deformation of the ball during impact and
also racket and ball parameters.
As measurement of the dynamic racket / ball impact phenomena during play is
difficult, an experimental programme was established simulating realistic impact
conditions using a stationary racket and balls fired from a pneumatic cannon.
High-speed digital camera technology was employed to obtain new information
regarding ball string interactions, and in particular, detailed information of oblique
impacts of tennis balls on racket string-beds. High performance rackets utilising
different string tensions, types and string patterns were set at a range of impact angles to
study the phenomena and over 2000 impacts yielded some 73,000 individual frames of
information. Analysis of the visual data enabled the contact time, footprint size and
shape, and the random movement of the strings as the ball passed over them to be
Post impact flight images of the ball were also recorded, to complete the data
required for accurate analysis of the ball/string-bed interaction and validation of the
analytical model. The results presented will enable manufacturers to develop equipment
with spin enhancement in mind and raise further research questions for investigation.|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)|
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