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Title: Experimental characterisation of the coolant film generated by various gas turbine combustor liner geometrics
Authors: Chua, Khim Heng
Keywords: Film cooling
Effusion patch
Adiabatic film cooling effectiveness
Double skin cooling system
Gas turbine combustor liner
Cooling film unsteadiness
Length scale
Mainstream turbulence intensity
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: © K H Chua
Abstract: In modern, low emission, gas turbine combustion systems the amount of air available for cooling of the flame tube liner is limited. This has led to the development of more complex cooling systems such as cooling tiles i.e. a double skin system, as opposed to the use of more conventional cooling slots i.e. a single skin system. An isothennal experimental facility has been constructed which can incorporate 10 times full size single and double skin (cooling tile) test specimens. The specimens can be tested with or without effusion cooling and measurements have been made to characterise the flow through each cooling system along with the velocity field and cooling effectiveness distributions that subsequently develop along the length of each test section. The velocity field of the coolant film has been defined using pneumatic probes, hot-wire anemometry and PIV instrumentation, whilst gas tracing technique is used to indicate (i) the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and (ii) mixing of the coolant film with the mainstream flow. Tests have been undertaken both with a datum low turbulence mainstream flow passing over the test section, along with various configurations in which large magnitudes and scales of turbulence were present in the mainstream flow. These high turbulence test cases simulate some of the flow conditions found within a gas turbine combustor. Results are presented relating to a variety of operating conditions for both types of cooling system. The nominal operating condition for the double skin system was at a coolant to mainstream blowing ratio of approximately 1.0. At this condition, mixing of the mainstream and coolant film was relatively small with low mainstream turbulence. However, at high mainstream turbulence levels there was rapid penetration of the mainstream flow into the coolant film. This break up of the coolant film leads to a significant reduction in the cooling effectiveness. In addition to the time-averaged characteristics, the time dependent behaviour of the .:coolantfilm was. also investigated. In particular, unsteadiness associated with large scale structures in the mainstream flow was observed within the coolant film and adjacent to the tile surface. Relative to a double skin system the single skin geometry requires a higher coolant flow rate that, along with other geometrical changes, results in typically higher coolant to mainstream velocity ratios. At low mainstream turbulence levels this difference in velocity between the coolant and mainstream promotes the generation of turbulence and mixing between the streams so leading to some reduction in cooling effectiveness. However, this higher momentum coolant fluid is more resistant to high mainstream turbulence levels and scales so that the coolant film break up is not as significant under these conditions as that observed for the double skin system. For all the configurations tested the use of effusion cooling helped restore the coolant film along the rear of the test section. For the same total coolant flow, the minimum value of cooling effectiveness observed along the test section was increased relative to the no effusion case. In addition the effectiveness of the effusion patch depends on the amount of coolant injected and the axial location of the patch. The overall experimental data suggested the importance of the initial cooling film conditions together with better understanding of the possible mechanisms that results in the rapid cooling film break-up, such as high turbulence mainstream flow and scales, and this will lead to a more effective cooling system design. This experimental data is also thought to be ideal for the validation of numerical predictions.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/12704
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering)

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