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Title: The effect of high-fat meals and exercise on endothelial function and triacylglycerol concentrations in adolescent boys
Authors: Sedgwick, Matthew J.
Keywords: Flow-mediated dilation
Postprandial lipaemia
Coronary heart disease risk
Young people
Sprint exercise
Lipids
Lipoproteins
Accumulated exercise
Physical activity
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: © Matthew J. Sedgwick
Abstract: The thesis investigated the effect of exercise on endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) and triacylglycerol concentrations following the ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch in adolescent boys. The validity of measuring lipid and lipoprotein concentrations from a capillary blood sample, and the reproducibility of the postprandial FMD and triacylglycerol concentration responses to the high-fat meals, was established. The effects of prior continuous moderate-intensity exercise (60 min walking at 60% V ̇O2peak), repeated very short duration sprints (40 x 6 s maximal effort cycle sprints) and accumulated moderate-intensity exercise (6 x 10 min running at 70% V ̇O2peak) on endothelial function and triacylglycerol concentrations in adolescent boys were then established across three studies, each consisting of two, 2-day main trials (control and exercise). On day 1, participants were either inactive or completed the prescribed exercise. On day 2, FMD and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured prior to, and following, ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch. In each control trial FMD was reduced (signifying endothelial dysfunction), compared to fasting, by 20-32% and 24-33% following the high-fat breakfast and lunch. Following continuous moderate-intensity exercise, repeated very-short duration sprints and accumulated moderate-intensity exercise these reductions were only 8% and 10% (main effect trial, P = 0.002; main effect time, P = 0.023; interaction effect trial x time, P = 0.088), 2% and 5% (main effect trial, P = 0.012; main effect time, P = 0.004; interaction effect trial x time, P = 0.003) and 1% and 3% (main effect trial, P = 0.020; main effect time, P < 0.001; interaction effect trial x time, P = 0.014) respectively. The continuous moderate-intensity exercise and repeated very short duration sprints also significantly reduced the total area under the triacylglycerol concentration versus time curve by 22% (Control vs. Exercise; 12.68 (sem 1.37) vs. 9.84 (sem 0.75) mmol L-1 6.5h, P = 0.018) and 13% (Exercise vs. Control: 8.65 (sem 0.97) vs. 9.92 (sem 1.16) mmol L-1 6.5h, P = 0.023). The accumulated moderate-intensity exercise also reduced the total area under the triacylglycerol concentration versus time curve by 11%, but this reduction was not significant (Control vs. Exercise: 10.71 (sem 0.94) vs. 9.56 (sem 0.67) mmol L-1 6.5h, respectively, P = 0.183). The experimental evidence from these studies emphasise that exercise might offer an acceptable, non-pharmacological means of influencing CHD risk when individuals are young. The results of these studies can help shape future physical activity guidelines.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/12827
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

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