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Title: Electroanalysis in nanoparticle assemblies
Authors: Stott, Susan J.
Keywords: Titania
Titanium carbide
Cyclic voltammetry
Biphasic voItammetry
Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: © S. J. Stott
Abstract: This thesis is concerned with the deposition of nanoparticle films onto boron-doped diamond and tin-doped indium oxide (lTO) surfaces and the characterisation of the films using electron microscopy, powder diffraction methods and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) data. The redox behaviour of the porous films was examined using cyclic voltammetry in various media to investigate potential electroanalytical applications. TiOz (anatase) mono-layer films were immobilised onto an inert boron-doped diamond substrate. Cyclic voltammetry experiments allowed two distinct steps in the reduction - protonation processes to be identified that are consistent with the formation of Ti(III) surface sites accompanied by the adsorption of protons. Preliminary data for electron transfer processes at the reduced TiOz surface such as the dihydrogen evolution process and the 2 electron - 2 proton reduction of maleic acid to succinic acid are discussed. Novel multi-layer TiOz films were deposited with a variety of organic binder molecules onto ITO substrates. The redox reactivity of Cuz+ with 1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7, IO-tetrayl- tetrakis (methyl-phosphonic acid) in solution and immobilised on an electrode surface are investigated. The influences of film thickness, scan rate, and pH on the electrochemistry of immobilised pyrroloquinoline quinone was investigated with two possible electron transport processes observed. The thickness of TiOz phytate films was found to change the shape of the resulting cyclic voltammograms dramatically. Computer simulation and impedance spectroscopy allowed insights into the diffusion of electrons to be obtained. 1, 1 ~Ferrocenedimethanol was employed as an adsorbing redox system to study the voltammetric characteristics of carboxymethyl-y-cyclodextrin films and evidence for two distinct binding sites is considered. The apparent transport coefficients for dopamine and Ru(NHJ)6J+ are estimated for TiOz Nafion® films. The electrochemical processes in biphasic electrode systems for the oxidation of water-insoluble N,N-didodecyl-N;N~diethyl-benzene-diamine (DDPD) pure and dissolved in di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphate (HDOP) immersed in aqueous electrolyte media are described. Transfer of the anion from the aqueous electrolyte phase into the organic phase accompanies the oxidation of pure DDPD. In the presence of HOOP, oxidation is accompanied by proton exchange. The electrochemically driven proton exchange process occurs over a wide pH range. Organic microdroplet deposits of OOPD in HDOP at basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes are studied using voltammetric techniques and compared to the behaviour of organic microphase deposits in mesoporous Ti02 thin films. Two types of Ti02 thin film electrodes were investigated, (i) a 300-400 nm film on ITa and (ii) a 300-400 nm film on ITa sputter-coated with a 20 nm porous gold layer. The latter biphasic design is superior. Titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticies were deposited onto ITa electrodes. Partial anodic oxidation and formation of novel core-shell TiC-Ti02 nanoparticies was observed at applied potentials positive of 0.3 V vs. SCE. Significant thermal oxidation of TiC nanoparticies by heating in air occurs at 250 °c leading to coreshell TiC-Ti02 nanoparticies, then Ti02 (anatase) at ca. 350 °c, and Ti02 (rutile) at temperatures higher than 750 °c. The electrocatalytic properties of the core-shell TiC-Ti02 nanoparticulate films were surveyed for the oxidation of hydroquinone, ascorbic acid, dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous buffer media. Mono- and multi-layer Ce02 deposits on ITa are shown to be electrochemically active. A reduction assigned to a Ce(IV/III) process has been observed and followup chemistry in the presence of phosphate discovered. The interfacial formation of CeP04 has been proven and effects of the deposit type, pH and phosphate concentration on the process analysed. The electrochemistry of multi-layer Ce02 nanoparticulate films in organic solvent is shown to be more stable.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/12882
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Chemistry)

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