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Title: Sequential and parallel algorithms for low-crossing graph drawing
Authors: Newton, Matthew
Keywords: Graph drawing
Bipartite graphs
Biplanar graphs
Genetic algorithms
Heuristic search
Parallel computation
Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: © Matthew Newton
Abstract: The one- and two-sided bipartite graph drawing problem alms to find a layout of a bipartite graph, with vertices of the two parts placed on parallel imaginary lines, that has the minimum number of edge-crossings. Vertices of one part are in fixed positions for the one-sided problem, whereas all vertices are free to move along their lines in the two-sided version. Many different heuristics exist for finding approximations to these problems, which are NP-hard. New sequential and parallel methods for producing drawings with low edgecrossings are investigated and compared to existing algorithms, notably Penalty Minimisation and Sifting, the current leaders. For the one-sided problem, new methods that include those based on simple stochastic hillclimbing, simulated annealing and genet.ic algorithms were tested. The new block-crossover genetic algorithm produced very good results with lower crossings than existing methods, although it tended to be slower. However, time was a secondary aim, the priority being to achieve low numbers of crossings. This algorithm can also be seeded with the output of an existing algorithm to improve results; combining with Penalty Minimisation in this way improved both the speed and number of crossings. Four parallel methods for the one-sided problem have been created, although two were abandoned because they gave bad results for even simple graphs. The other two methods, based on stochastic hill-climbing, produced acceptable results in faster times than similar sequential methods. PVM was used as the parallel communication system. Two new heuristics were studied for the two-sided problem, for which the only known existing method is to apply one-sided algorithms iteratively. The first is based on a heuristic for the linear arrangment problem; the second is a method of performing stochastic hill-climbing on two sides. A way of applying anyone-sided algorithm iteratively was also created. The linear arrangement method based on the Koren-Harel multi-scale algorithm achieved the best results, outperforming iterative Barycentre (previously the best method) and iterative Penalty Minimisation. Another area of this work created three new heuristics for the k-planar drawing problem where k > 1. These are the first known practical algorithms to solve this problem. A sequential genetic algorithm based on TimGA is devised to work on k-planar graphs. Two parallel algorithms, one island model and the other a 'mesh' model, are also given. Comparison of results for k = 2 indicate that the parallel island method is better than the other two methods. MPI was used for the parallel communication. Overall, 14 new methods are introduced, of which 10 were developed into working algorithms. For the one-sided bipartite graph drawing problem the new block-crossover genetic algorithm can produce drawings with lower crossings than the current best available algorithms. The parallel methods do not perform as well as the sequential ones, although they generally achieved the same results faster. All of the new two-sided methods worked well; the weighted two-sided swap stochastic hill-climbing method was comparable to the existing best method, iterative Barycentre, and generally produced drawings with lower crossings, although it suffered with needing a good termination condition. The new methods based on the linear arrangement problem consistently produced drawings with lower crossings than iterative Barycentre, although they were nearly always slower. A new parallel algorithm for the k-planar drawing problem, based on the island model, generally created drawings with the lowest edge-crossings, although no algorithms were known to exist to make comparisons.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/12944
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Computer Science)

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