MEEK, S., ISON, S.G. and ENOCH, M.P., 2011. The role of Park and Ride in the UK: a temporal and evaluative review. Urban Transport of China, 9 (1), pp.55-70.
The number of bus-based Park and Ride (P&R)
schemes in the UK has grown substantially over the past 40 years
as a result of its encouragement by the Government as a tool to
deal with increasing traffic congestion and traffic-related pollution.
The aim of this article is to analyse the degree to which P&R
is effective in the contemporary policy context. The authors identify
phases of development of P&R since its emergence as a local
solution to transport capacity constraints in historic towns. Policy
goals are identified against which a review of literature is used to
highlight its effectiveness. It is concluded that P&R may increase
the distance travelled by its users due to low load factors on dedicated
buses, public transport abstraction and trip generation, although
it is highlighted that there are areas in which further research