The effect of mutual coupling between elements plays a crucial role to the performance of the antenna arrays. The radiation patterns of antenna arrays will be altered by the coupling effect from the adjacent elements thus reducing the accuracy and resolution in direction finding application. This research developed and validated the novel 3-D Algorithm to calculate the far-field pattern of dipole arrays arranged in three dimensions and in any configuration (both in straight and slanted position). The effect of mutual coupling has been accounted using the Induced EMF method. The computation is performed on 2x2 parallel dipoles and 12 dipoles arranged at the edge of a cube. The results are validated with other electromagnetic techniques such as Method of Moment (MoM) and Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD). Then, a 2x2 dipole array is chosen for beam steering and experiment validation due to its ease of implementation and feeding network. The array optimisation to control the pattern is performed using a genetic algorithm. The far-field pattern computed using the 3-D algorithm might be less accurate than other 3-D electromagnetic techniques but its array optimisation is faster and efficient. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement with each other confirmed the validity of the 3-D algorithm.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.