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Title: Crankcase sampling of PM from a fired and motored compression ignition engine
Authors: Johnson, Benjamin T.
Hargrave, Graham K.
Reid, Benjamin A.
Page, Vivian J.
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: © SAE
Citation: JOHNSON, B.T. ... et al, 2011. Crankcase sampling of PM from a fired and motored compression ignition engine. SAE International Journal of Engines, 4 (2), pp. 2498-2509.
Series/Report no.: SAE paper;2011-24-0209
Abstract: Crankcase emissions are a complex mixture of combustion products and aerosol generated from lubrication oil. The crankcase emissions contribute substantially to the total particulate matter (PM) emitted from an engine. Environment legislation demands that either the combustion and crankcase emissions are combined to give a total measurement, or the crankcase gases are re-circulated back into the engine. There is a lack of understanding regarding the physical processes that generate crankcase aerosols, with a paucity of information on the size/mass concentrations of particles present in the crankcase. In this study the particulate matter crankcase emissions were measured from a fired and motored 4 cylinder compression ignition engine at a range of speeds and crankcase locations. A sequence of sampling equipment was used to characterise the emissions in the size range 5 nm - 19 μm; Cambustion DMS500 fast particulate spectrometer, TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), TSI™ Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and, TSI™ Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The combination of the two test engines and range of sampling equipment provided new information on the generation and behavior of aerodynamic particulate matter within an engine crankcase. Data is presented for the effect of controlled parameter changes on number distributions over the measured particle size range. A complex lognormal bimodal size distribution of sub micron accumulation mode particles was present in the crankcase of both engines at a low idle speed of 900rpm. At 1400rpm this complex distribution was not present. Increasing the engine load, on the fired engine, initially reduced the particle number concentration with a final significant increase in particle number concentration at 75% load. At 900 rpm 50% load there was a single strong peak at 32nm in the rocker cover however sampling from the push rod gallery and sump showed a strongly bimodal distribution with peaks at 32nm and 133nm. All other sampling data, from the fired engine, was consistent at each sampling location. The SMPS results, 15-665nm, on the motored engine showed location dependency, with the highest number concentration of particles present in the push rod gallery.
Description: Copyright © 2011 SAE International. This paper is posted on this site with permission from SAE International, and is for viewing only. Further use or distribution of this paper is not permitted without permission from SAE.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.4271/2011-24-0209
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/13440
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2011-24-0209
ISSN: 1946-3936
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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