VLADISAVLJEVIC, G.T., VUKOSAVLJEVIC, P. and VELJOVIC, M.S., 2013. Clarification of red raspberry juice using microfiltration with gas backwashing: a viable strategy to maximize permeate flux and minimize a loss of anthocyanins. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 91 (4), pp.473-480.
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) juice was produced by maceration of raspberry pulp at 50 °C for 2 h using 400 mg kg Klerzyme150 enzymatic pectolitic preparation followed by raw juice clarification with gelatin and bentonite or cross-flow membrane filtration. A minimal loss of anthocyanins from 630 to 540 mg l was obtained when the juice was clarified using a ceramic multichannel microfilter (MF) with a pore size of 0.2 μm. A light transmission at 625 nm in MF permeate was above 85% and the residual pectin (900 mg l) was completely removed. During ultrafiltration through ceramic or polysulfone membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of 30-300 kDa, the content of anthocyanins was reduced to 220-370 mg l, but a light transmission at 625 nm was as high as 96%. The permeate flux in MF was maintained at high values above 170 l m h at 3 bar for more than 2 h by backwashing the membrane with a compressed air every 6 min for 1 min. The cake compression at high pressures was avoided by short filtration times between backwashing.