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Title: Structural characteristics of various types of helically wound cables in bending
Authors: Khan, Sajjad W.
Keywords: Bending stiffness
Bending fatigue
Hoop contact force
Imposed curvature
Interwire slippage
Locked coil cable
Lay angle
Radius of helix
Radius of curvature
Radial contact force
Spiral strand
Thin rod model
Semi-continuous model
Wire rope
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: © Sajjad Wali Khan
Abstract: The primary aim of this research was to investigate the bending behaviour of helically wound steel cables of various types (i.e. normal spiral strands, sheathed spiral strands and locked coil cables) in the presence of friction and to propose more efficient computational models for their analysis under combined tension and bending. The proposed model fully takes into account interwire contact forces both in the radial direction (point contact between wires in different layers) and hoop direction (line contact within the wires in the same layer). Extensive theoretical parametric studies have been undertaken on a variety of cable constructions covering a wide range of geometrical and material parameters. Explicit formulations have been developed for the smooth transition of the bending stiffness from no-slip to full slip regimes, as a function of cable curvature. Based on these formulations, it is now possible to calculate the relative displacements of the wires, as well as the tensile, bending and hoop stresses in the individual wires of the cable. Furthermore, bending stiffness of the cable is shown to decrease by a factor of 2 to 16, depending upon the friction coefficient between wires and the type of cable construction. Wherever possible, the theoretical results have been compared with experimental results from the available literature and are found in very good agreement with them. A simple method for the determination of the bending stiffness of large diameter multi-layered cable has been developed. The simplified method is further shown to provide estimates of the bending stiffness which are very close to those calculated by the original theory, allowing hand calculations for an easier use in industry. The proposed formulations have been extended to cater for the effects of external hydrostatic pressure on sheathed spiral strands in deep water applications. These forces are shown to have a great influence on the pattern of interwire contact forces and hence the interlayer slippage between the wires in the strand. Numerical results have been obtained and analysed for three different 127 mm diameter strands with lay angles of 12°, 18° and 24° respectively, experiencing a wide range of external hydrostatic pressures of 0 to 2,000 metres. The significant increase in normal contact Page | iv force between wires is shown to suppress the slippage of wires in the cable. However, the no-slip and full slip values of the effective bending stiffness of the cable is shown to be independent of the level of hydrostatic pressure. A theoretical model is also proposed for estimating wire kinematics, pattern of interwire slippage, contact forces as well as the flexural rigidity of locked coil cables with outer layers made of shaped wires. In order to validate this model, numerical results are reported for two different locked coil cables. It is shown that the shaped wires in the outer layers of locked coil cables play an important role in the distribution of contact forces, slip initiation and cable unwinding.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
Sponsor: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/14157
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering)

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