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|Title: ||Time and frequency domain algorithms for speech coding|
|Authors: ||Yeoh, Francis S.C.|
|Issue Date: ||1983|
|Publisher: ||© Francis S.C. Yeoh|
|Abstract: ||The promise of digital hardware economies (due to recent advances in
VLSI technology), has focussed much attention on more complex and sophisticated
speech coding algorithms which offer improved quality at relatively
low bit rates.
This thesis describes the results (obtained from computer simulations)
of research into various efficient (time and frequency domain) speech
encoders operating at a transmission bit rate of 16 Kbps.
In the time domain, Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM)
systems employing both forward and backward adaptive prediction were
examined. A number of algorithms were proposed and evaluated, including
several variants of the Stochastic Approximation Predictor (SAP). A
Backward Block Adaptive (BBA) predictor was also developed and found to
outperform the conventional stochastic methods, even though its complexity
in terms of signal processing requirements is lower. A simplified
Adaptive Predictive Coder (APC) employing a single tap pitch predictor
considered next provided a slight improvement in performance over ADPCM,
but with rather greater complexity.
The ultimate test of any speech coding system is the perceptual performance
of the received speech. Recent research has indicated that this
may be enhanced by suitable control of the noise spectrum according to
the theory of auditory masking. Various noise shaping ADPCM
configurations were examined, and it was demonstrated that a proposed
pre-/post-filtering arrangement which exploits advantageously the
predictor-quantizer interaction, leads to the best subjective
performance in both forward and backward prediction systems.
Adaptive quantization is instrumental to the performance of ADPCM systems.
Both the forward adaptive quantizer (AQF) and the backward oneword
memory adaptation (AQJ) were examined. In addition, a novel method
of decreasing quantization noise in ADPCM-AQJ coders, which involves the
application of correction to the decoded speech samples, provided
reduced output noise across the spectrum, with considerable high frequency
More powerful (and inevitably more complex) frequency domain speech
coders such as the Adaptive Transform Coder (ATC) and the Sub-band Coder
(SBC) offer good quality speech at 16 Kbps. To reduce complexity and
coding delay, whilst retaining the advantage of sub-band coding, a novel
transform based split-band coder (TSBC) was developed and found to compare
closely in performance with the SBC.
To prevent the heavy side information requirement associated with a
large number of bands in split-band coding schemes from impairing coding
accuracy, without forgoing the efficiency provided by adaptive bit
allocation, a method employing AQJs to code the sub-band signals together
with vector quantization of the bit allocation patterns was also
Finally, 'pipeline' methods of bit allocation and step size estimation
(using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the input signal) were examined.
Such methods, although less accurate, are nevertheless useful in
limiting coding delay associated with SRC schemes employing Quadrature
Mirror Filters (QMF).|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)|
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