DOWNWARD, P., LERA-LOPEZ, F. and RASCIUTE, S., 2011. The Zero-Inflated Ordered Probit approach to modelling sports participation. Economic Modelling, 28 (6), pp.2469-2477.
This paper investigates the determinants of the frequency and the probability of sports participation in Spain by applying the Zero-Inflated Ordered Probit (ZIOP) model. The ZIOP model allows to account for excessive zero observations and differentiate between genuine ‘non-participants’ and individuals who did not participate at a time but would do so if the circumstances were different. The results show that the decision to participate in sports or not and the frequency of sports participation are driven by different factors.