Security cameras installed in public spaces or in private organizations continuously
record video data with the aim of detecting and preventing crime. For that reason,
video content analysis applications, either for real time (i.e. analytic) or post-event
(i.e. forensic) analysis, have gained high interest in recent years. In this thesis,
the primary focus is on two key aspects of video analysis, reliable moving object
segmentation and carried object detection & identification.
A novel moving object segmentation scheme by background subtraction is presented
in this thesis. The scheme relies on background modelling which is based
on multi-directional gradient and phase congruency. As a post processing step,
the detected foreground contours are refined by classifying the edge segments as
either belonging to the foreground or background. Further contour completion
technique by anisotropic diffusion is first introduced in this area. The proposed
method targets cast shadow removal, gradual illumination change invariance, and
closed contour extraction.
A state of the art carried object detection method is employed as a benchmark
algorithm. This method includes silhouette analysis by comparing human temporal
templates with unencumbered human models. The implementation aspects of
the algorithm are improved by automatically estimating the viewing direction of
the pedestrian and are extended by a carried luggage identification module. As
the temporal template is a frequency template and the information that it provides
is not sufficient, a colour temporal template is introduced. The standard
steps followed by the state of the art algorithm are approached from a different
extended (by colour information) perspective, resulting in more accurate carried
The experiments conducted in this research show that the proposed closed
foreground segmentation technique attains all the aforementioned goals. The incremental
improvements applied to the state of the art carried object detection
algorithm revealed the full potential of the scheme. The experiments demonstrate
the ability of the proposed carried object detection algorithm to supersede the
state of the art method.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University