Loughborough University, Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre
DORMAN, L.E. and HAVENITH, G., 2007. Investigating the effect of wet layers and their frictional properties on metabolic rate. Loughborough: Loughborough University, 33pp.
The previous chapter introduced the concept of a possible friction drag
effect between clothing layers. Many authors who found increases in energy
costs when working in multilayered protective clothing ensembles
speculated that this effect may have been responsible for some of the
However, although this friction drag had been put forward by many, a review
of the ergonomics, clothing and textile literature revealed a lack of detailed
investigation into the issue.
Results from the previous chapter found wearing four layers did increase the
metabolic costs of walking and completing an obstacle course by 4.5 to
7.4% compared to a single layered control condition of the same weight,
with the increases statistically significant (p<0.05) in all but one condition.
Layers were made up of high and low friction fabrics and worn in different
combinations but the differences in metabolic cost between the high and low
friction ensembles tested (up to 2.8 %) did not prove statistically significant.
This report is part of the European Union project THERMPROTECT G6RD-CT-2002-00846, Report 2007-6