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|Title: ||Experimental investigation into the impact of a liquid droplet onto a granular bed using three-dimensional, time-resolved, particle tracking|
|Authors: ||Long, Edward J.|
Hargrave, Graham K.
Cooper, James R.
Kitchener, Ben G.
Parsons, Anthony J.
Hewett, Caspar J.
|Issue Date: ||2014|
|Publisher: ||© American Physical Society|
|Citation: ||LONG, E.J. ... et al., 2014. Experimental investigation into the impact of a liquid droplet onto a granular bed using three-dimensional, time-resolved, particle tracking. Physical Review E, 89 (3), 14 pp.|
|Abstract: ||An experimental investigation into the interaction that occurs between an impacting water droplet and a
granular bed of loose graded sand has been carried out. High-speed imaging, three-dimensional time-resolved
particle tracking, and photogrammetric surface proﬁling have been used to examine individual impact events.
The focus of the study is the quantiﬁcation and trajectory analysis of the particles ejected from the sand bed,
along with measurement of the change in bed morphology. The results from the experiments have detailed two
distinct mechanisms of particle ejection: the ejection of water-encapsulated particles from the edge of the wetted
region and the ejection of dry sand from the periphery of the impact crater. That the process occurs by these two
distinct mechanisms has hitherto been unobserved. Presented in the paper are distributions of the particle ejection
velocities, angles, and transport distances for both mechanisms. The ejected water-encapsulated particles, which
are few in number, are characterized by low ejection angles and high ejection velocities, leading to large transport
distances; the ejected dry particles, which are much greater in number, are characterized by high ejection angles
and low velocities, leading to lower transport distances. From the particle ejection data, the momentum of the
individual ballistic sand particles has been calculated; it was found that only 2% of the water-droplet momentum
at impact is transferred to the ballistic sand particles. In addition to the particle tracking, surface proﬁling of the
granular bed postimpact has provided detailed information on its morphology; these data have demonstrated the
consistent nature of the craters produced by the impact and suggest that particle agglomerations released from
their edges make up about twice the number of particles involved in ballistic ejection. It is estimated that, overall,
about 4% of the water-droplet momentum is taken up in particle movement.|
|Description: ||This article was published in the journal, Physical Review E [ © American Physical Society] and the definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.89.032201|
|Sponsor: ||This research was supported by NERC Grant No.
|Version: ||Accepted for publication|
|Publisher Link: ||http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.89.032201|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)|
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