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Title: Spinal cord injury level and the circulating cytokine response to strenuous exercise
Authors: Paulson, Thomas A.W.
Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.
Lenton, John P.
Leicht, Christof A.
Bishop, Nicolette
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory
Myokine
Epinephrine
Wheelchair propulsion
Cardiovascular disease
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: © American College of Sports Medicine
Citation: PAULSON, T.A.W. ... et al., 2013. Spinal cord injury level and the circulating cytokine response to strenuous exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45 (9), pp. 1649-1655.
Abstract: PURPOSE: A complete spinal cord injury (SCI) above the 6th thoracic vertebra (T6) results in the loss of sympathetic innervation of the adrenal medulla. This study examined the effect of a complete SCI above and below T6 on plasma concentrations of epinephrine, circulating interleukin (IL)-6 and other inflammatory cytokines in response to acute strenuous exercise. METHODS: Twenty-six elite male wheelchair athletes (8=C6-C7 tetraplegic (TETRA); 10=T6- L1 paraplegic (PARA); 8=non-spinal cord injured controls (NON-SCI)) performed a submaximal exercise test followed by a graded exercise to exhaustion on a motorised treadmill. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise, post-exercise and 30 min post-exercise (post30) and analysed for concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1ra), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), epinephrine and cortisol. RESULTS: Circulating IL-6 concentration was significantly elevated at post-exercise and post30 (~5-fold) in NON-SCI and PARA (P=0.003) whereas concentrations in TETRA did not change significantly from pre-exercise values. IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-α were unaffected by exercise in all groups, however both SCI groups presented elevated concentrations of IL-10 compared with NONSCI (P=0.001). At post-exercise, epinephrine concentrations were significantly higher than pre-exercise and post30 concentrations in NON-SCI (~3-fold) and PARA (~2-fold) (P=0.02). Plasma epinephrine concentrations were unchanged in TETRA throughout exercise; concentrations were significantly lower than NON-SCI and PARA at all-time points. Plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated in all groups at post-exercise and post30 compared with pre-exercise (P<0.001). Total exercise time was similar between groups (NON-SCI= 38±6; PARA= 35±5; TETRA= 36±5 min). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the sympathetic nervous system plays an important regulatory role in the circulating IL-6 response to exercise and has implications for the metabolic and inflammatory responses to exercise in individuals with injuries above T6.
Description: This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in: PAULSON, T.A.W. ... et al., 2013. Spinal cord injury level and the circulating cytokine response to strenuous exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45 (9), pp. 1649-1655. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f9bbb.
Sponsor: A grant from the Coca-Cola Foundation was received for consumable costs during this research along with additional support provided by the corresponding institution.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f9bbb
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/15318
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f9bbb
ISSN: 0195-9131
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

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