ABDEL-WAHAB, A.A., LI, S.-M. and SILBERSCHMIDT, V.V., 2014. Modelling fracture processes in bones. In: Jin, Z.-M. (ed.). Computational Modelling of Biomechanics and Biotribology in the Musculoskeletal System: Biomaterials and Tissues. London: Woodhead, pp. 268-302.
This chapter discusses numerical simulations of fracture and deformation of a cortical bone tissue employing an extended finiteelement method (X-FEM). The chapter first reviews the literature on available finite-element models for both macroscopic and microscopic fracture behaviours of the cortical bone tissue. It then discusses the formulation and analysis of a number of finite-element models investigating deformation and fracture of cortical bone using X-FEM at different length scales and for various loading conditions.