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|Title: ||How many steps/day are enough for adults?|
|Authors: ||Tudor-Locke, Catrine|
Craig, Cora L.
Brown, Wendy J.
Clemes, Stacy A.
De Cocker, Katrien
Matsudo, Sandra M.
Rowe, David A.
Schmidt, Michael D.
Schofield, Grant M.
Spence, John C.
Teixeira, Pedro J.
Tully, Mark A.
Blair, Steven N.
|Keywords: ||Systematic review|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||BioMed Central (© the authors)|
|Citation: ||TUDOR-LOCKE, C. ... (et al.), 2011. How many steps/day are enough for adults? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, no. 79.|
|Abstract: ||Physical activity guidelines from around the world are typically expressed in terms of frequency, duration, and
intensity parameters. Objective monitoring using pedometers and accelerometers offers a new opportunity to
measure and communicate physical activity in terms of steps/day. Various step-based versions or translations of
physical activity guidelines are emerging, reflecting public interest in such guidance. However, there appears to be
a wide discrepancy in the exact values that are being communicated. It makes sense that step-based
recommendations should be harmonious with existing evidence-based public health guidelines that recognize that
“some physical activity is better than none” while maintaining a focus on time spent in moderate-to-vigorous
physical activity (MVPA). Thus, the purpose of this review was to update our existing knowledge of “How many
steps/day are enough?”, and to inform step-based recommendations consistent with current physical activity
guidelines. Normative data indicate that healthy adults typically take between 4,000 and 18,000 steps/day, and that
10,000 steps/day is reasonable for this population, although there are notable “low active populations.”
Interventions demonstrate incremental increases on the order of 2,000-2,500 steps/day. The results of seven
different controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between cadence and intensity. Further,
despite some inter-individual variation, 100 steps/minute represents a reasonable floor value indicative of moderate
intensity walking. Multiplying this cadence by 30 minutes (i.e., typical of a daily recommendation) produces a
minimum of 3,000 steps that is best used as a heuristic (i.e., guiding) value, but these steps must be taken over and
above habitual activity levels to be a true expression of free-living steps/day that also includes recommendations
for minimal amounts of time in MVPA. Computed steps/day translations of time in MVPA that also include
estimates of habitual activity levels equate to 7,100 to 11,000 steps/day. A direct estimate of minimal amounts of
MVPA accumulated in the course of objectively monitored free-living behaviour is 7,000-8,000 steps/day. A scale
that spans a wide range of incremental increases in steps/day and is congruent with public health recognition that
“some physical activity is better than none,” yet still incorporates step-based translations of recommended amounts
of time in MVPA may be useful&|