VERBRUGGEN, R., HOYLER, M. and TAYLOR, P.J., 2014. The networked city. IN: Knox, P. (ed.) Atlas of Cities. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 34 - 51.
After the demise of the western Roman Empire in the 5th century, urban
growth came to a standstill in most parts of western Europe. Only in the
course of the 11th century did a new phase of urbanization begin. Although
improvements in agriculture played a significant part in this urban renewal, it
was primarily the revival of trade – especially with the more developed and
urbanized economies of the Near East in the wake of the crusades – that
caused cities to spring up again in many parts of Europe. The development of
strong trade links between the cities of Latin Christian Europe (which were
further intensified as a consequence of the commercial revolution of the 13th
century) warrants the introduction of a specific typology to describe the late
medieval and 16th-century European city: the networked city.