HIGGINSON, R.L. ... et al, 2012. Grain size control in the weld pool and heat affected zone using holograms. Materials Science Forum, 715-716, pp. 340 - 345.
This paper considers the use of Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to shape the weld beam and hence control the grain size of the weld bead and the grain growth and phase transformations in the HAZ. Welds have been produced on carbon steel with the introduction of a nickel based filler powder, using different energy densities produced by the HOEs. Cross sections of the welds have been analysed in terms of the weld profile, weld pool shape and grain size in the deposit and the HAZ. Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) has been used to study the microstructures developed. The results have shown that by utilising HOEs the grain size within the weld pool can be controlled such that a more equiaxed grain structure is developed when compared with the coarse columnar grains seen with a Gaussian beam.