Current European legislation aims to limit vehicle noise emissions since many people are exposed to road traffic noise in urban areas. Vehicle pass-by noise is measured according to the international standard ISO 362 in Europe. More recent investigations of urban traffic have led to the proposal of a revised ISO 362 which includes a constant-speed test in addition to the traditional accelerated test in order to determine the pass-by noise value. In order to meet the legal pass-by noise requirements, vehicle manufacturers and suppliers must analyse and quantify vehicle noise source characteristics during the development phase of the vehicle. In addition, predictive tools need to be available for the estimation of the final pass-by noise value.
This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of vehicle pass-by noise and of the characteristics of the vehicle noise sources contributing to pass-by noise. This is supported through an extensive literature review in which current pass-by noise prediction methods are reviewed as well. Furthermore, three vehicle noise sources are replicated experimentally under laboratory conditions. This involves an orifice noise source, represented by a specially designed loudspeaker on a moving trolley, shell noise, represented by a metal cylinder structure, and tyre cavity and sidewall noise, represented by an annular membrane mounted on a tyre-like structure. The experimentally determined directivity characteristics of the acoustically excited noise sources are utilised in the pass-by noise prediction method. The predictive results are validated against experimental measurements of the three vehicle-like noise sources made within an anechoic chamber.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.