BURSTEIN et al, 2001. Automated evaluation of essays and short answers. Proeedings of the 5th CAA Conference, Loughborough: Loughborough University
Essay questions designed to measure writing ability, along with open-ended questions
requiring short answers, are highly-valued components of effective assessment
programs, but the expense and logistics of scoring them reliably often present a barrier
to their use. Extensive research and development efforts at Educational Testing
Service (ETS) over the past several years (see http://www.ets.org/research/erater.html)
in natural language processing have produced two applications with the potential to
dramatically reduce the difficulties associated with scoring these types of assessments.