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Title: Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials
Authors: Li, Ji
Monaghan, Thomas
Masurtschak, Simona
Bournias-Varotsis, Alkaios
Friel, Ross J.
Harris, Russell A.
Keywords: Ultrasonic additive manufacturing
3D printing
Layered manufacturing
Embedded electrical materials
Mechanical strength
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: © The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Citation: LI, J. et al., 2015. Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 639, pp. 474-481.
Abstract: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to the process induced high degree of metal matrix plastic flow at low bulk temperatures. Exploitation of this phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components. The feasibility of directly embedding electrical materials within UAM metal matrices was investigated in this work. Three different dielectric materials were embedded into UAM fabricated aluminium metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of the dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. It was found that when the Knoop hardness of the dielectric film was increased from 12.1 HK/0.01 kg to 27.3 HK/0.01 kg, the mechanical peel testing and linear weld density of the bond interface were enhanced by 15% and 16%, respectively, at UAM parameters of 1600 N weld force, 25 µm sonotrode amplitude, and 20 mm/s welding speed. This work uniquely identified that the mechanical strength of dielectric containing UAM metal matrices improved with increasing dielectric material hardness. It was therefore concluded that any UAM metal matrix mechanical strength degradation due to dielectric embedding could be restricted by employing a dielectric material with a suitable hardness (larger than 20 HK/0.01 kg). This result is of great interest and a vital step for realising electronic containing multifunctional smart metal composites for future industrial applications.
Description: This is an Open Access article. It is published by Elsevier under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY 4.0). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Sponsor: This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK via the Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, grant number EP/I033335/2.
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.05.019
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/18301
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.05.019
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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