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Title: Fabrication of wavy type porous triple-layer SC-SOFC via in-situ observation of curvature evolution during co-sintering
Authors: Choi, Indae
Keywords: Wavy cell
Single Chamber SOFC
In-situ curvature monitoring
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: © Indae Choi
Abstract: Wavy type Single Chamber Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SC-SOFCs) have been shown to be conducive to improving the effective electrochemical reaction area contributing to higher performance, compared with planar type SC-SOFCs of the same diameter. This study presents a fabrication process for wavy type SC-SOFCs with a single fabrication step via co-sintering of a triple-layer structure. The monitoring and observation of the curvature evolution of bi- and triple-layer structures during co-sintering has resulted in an improved process with reduced manufacturing time and effort, as regards the co-sintering process for multi-layer structures. Investigation using in-situ monitoring helps different shrinkage behaviours of each porous layer to minimise mismatched stresses along with avoidance of severe warping and cracking. In the co-sintering of the multi-layer structures, the induced in-plane stresses contribute to curvature evolution in the structure, which can be utilised in the design of a curved multi-layer structure via the co-sintering process. For intermediate temperature SOFCs, the materials used are NiO/CGO for anode; CGO for electrolyte; and LSCF for cathode. These materials are tape-casted with 20µm thickness and assembled for bi- and triple-layer structures by hot pressing. Sintering mismatch stresses have been analysed in bi-layer structures, consisting of NiO/CGO-CGO and CGO-LSCF. The maximum sintering mismatch stress was calculated at interface of bi-layer structure in the top layer. In order to achieve the desired wavy type triple-layer structure, flexible green layers of each component were stacked up and laid on alumina rods to support the curvature during the process. In-situ observation, to monitor the shrinkage of each material and the curvature evolution of the structures, was performed using a long focus microscope (Infinity K-2). With these values, the main factors such as viscosity, shrinkage rate of each material, and curvature rate are investigated to determine the sintering mismatch stresses. This enables the prediction of curvature for triple-layer structure and the prediction is validated by in-situ monitoring of the triple-layer structure co-sintering process. Zero-deflection condition is confirmed to maintain initial shape during co-sintering and helps to minimise the development of undesired curvature in the triple-layer structure. Performance testing of the wavy cell was carried out in a methane-air mixture (CH4:O2 =1:1). In comparison with a planar SC-SOFC, it showed higher OCV which might be attributed to not only macro deformation, but also microstructural distribution affecting the effective gas diffusion paths and electrochemical active sites.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
Sponsor: Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering Department in Loughborough University
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/18668
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering)

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