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Title: Prediction of core body temperature from multiple variables.
Authors: Richmond, Victoria
Davey, Sarah
Griggs, Katy E.
Havenith, George
Keywords: Extreme environments
Heat stress
Heat stress indices
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: © The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Citation: RICHMOND, V. ...et al., 2015. Prediction of core body temperature from multiple variables. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, pp.1-11.
Abstract: This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin temperature (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual parameter for the prediction of T re. This paper provides novel information about the viability of predicting T c under a wide range of conditions, using predictors which can practically be measured in a field environment.
Description: This article has been accepted for publication in The Annals of Occupational Hygiene published by Oxford University Press.
Sponsor: The authors express their gratitude to the European Commission for project funding FP7-NMP-2008-SME-2, Proj. No. 229042: Prospie – Protective Responsive Outer Shell for People in Industrial Environments.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mev054
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/18881
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mev054
ISSN: 0003-4878
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Design School)

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