In this thesis new methods are presented for achieving spectrum sensing in cognitive radio wireless networks. In particular, supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised machine learning based spectrum sensing algorithms are developed and various techniques to improve their performance are described.
Spectrum sensing problem in multi-antenna cognitive radio networks is considered and a novel eigenvalue based feature is proposed which has the capability to enhance the performance of support vector machines algorithms for signal classification. Furthermore, spectrum sensing under multiple primary users condition is studied and a new re-formulation of the sensing task as a multiple class signal detection problem where each class embeds one or more states is presented. Moreover, the error correcting output codes based multi-class support vector machines algorithms is proposed and investigated for solving the multiple class signal detection problem using two different coding strategies.
In addition, the performance of parametric classifiers for spectrum sensing under slow fading channel is studied. To address the attendant performance degradation problem, a Kalman filter based channel estimation technique is proposed for tracking the temporally correlated slow fading channel and updating the decision boundary of the classifiers in real time. Simulation studies are included to assess the performance of the proposed schemes.
Finally, techniques for improving the quality of the learning features and improving the detection accuracy of sensing algorithms are studied and a novel beamforming based pre-processing technique is presented for feature realization in multi-antenna cognitive radio systems. Furthermore, using the beamformer derived features, new algorithms are developed for multiple hypothesis testing facilitating joint spatio-temporal spectrum sensing. The key performance metrics of the classifiers are evaluated to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed methods in comparison with previously proposed alternatives.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.