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Title: Measurement and analysis of household carbon: the case of a UK city
Authors: Allinson, David
Irvine, Katherine
Edmondson, J.L.
Tiwary, A.
Hill, Graeme
Morris, Jonathan
Bell, M.C.
Davies, Z.G.
Firth, Steven K.
Fisher, Jill
Gaston, K.J.
Leake, J.R.
McHugh, Nicola
Namdeo, A.
Rylatt, Mark
Lomas, Kevin J.
Keywords: Domestic energy demand
Household emissions
Transport emissions
Organic carbon storage
Energy policy
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: © The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Citation: ALLINSON, D. ...et al., 2016. Measurement and analysis of household carbon: the case of a UK city. Applied Energy, 164, pp. 871–881.
Abstract: There is currently a lack of data recording the carbon and emissions inventory at household level. This paper presents a multi-disciplinary, bottom-up approach for estimation and analysis of the carbon emissions, and the organic carbon (OC) stored in gardens, using a sample of 575 households across a UK city. The annual emission of carbon dioxide emissions from energy used in the homes was measured, personal transport emissions were assessed through a household survey and OC stores estimated from soil sampling and vegetation surveys. The results showed that overall carbon patterns were skewed with highest emitting third of the households being responsible for more than 50% of the emissions and around 50% of garden OC storage. There was diversity in the relative contribution that gas, electricity and personal transport made to each household’s total and different patterns were observed for high, medium and low emitting households. Targeting households with high carbon emissions from one source would not reliably identify them as high emitters overall. While carbon emissions could not be offset by growing trees in gardens, there were considerable amounts of stored OC in gardens which ought to be protected. Exploratory analysis of the multiple drivers of emissions was conducted using a combination of primary and secondary data. These findings will be relevant in devising effective policy instruments for combatting city scale green-house gas emissions from domestic end-use energy demand.
Description: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sponsor: This work is supported by the EPSRC projects Measurement, Modelling, Mapping and Management 4M: An Evidence Based Methodology for Understanding and Shrinking the Urban Carbon Footprint (grant reference EP/F007604/1) and Self Conserving Urban Environments (SECURE, grant reference EP/I002154/1) funded under the Sustainable Urban Environments programme.
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.054
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/19867
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.054
ISSN: 0306-2619
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Civil and Building Engineering)

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