Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 263171
Loughborough University

Loughborough University Institutional Repository

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/20486

Title: Universal principles in the repair of communication problems
Authors: Dingemanse, Mark
Roberts, Sean G.
Baranova, Julija
Blythe, Joe
Drew, Paul
Floyd, Simeon
Gisladottir, Rosa S.
Kendrick, Kobin H.
Levinson, Stephen C.
Manrique, Elizabeth
Rossi, Giovanni
Enfield, N.J.
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: © The Authors. Published by Public Library of Science
Citation: DINGEMANSE, M. ...et al., 2015. Universal principles in the repair of communication problems. PLOS ONE, 10(9), e0136100.
Abstract: There would be little adaptive value in a complex communication system like human language if there were no ways to detect and correct problems. A systematic comparison of conversation in a broad sample of the world’s languages reveals a universal system for the real-time resolution of frequent breakdowns in communication. In a sample of 12 languages of 8 language families of varied typological profiles we find a system of ‘other-initiated repair’, where the recipient of an unclear message can signal trouble and the sender can repair the original message. We find that this system is frequently used (on average about once per 1.4 minutes in any language), and that it has detailed common properties, contrary to assumptions of radical cultural variation. Unrelated languages share the same three functionally distinct types of repair initiator for signalling problems and use them in the same kinds of contexts. People prefer to choose the type that is the most specific possible, a principle that minimizes cost both for the sender being asked to fix the problem and for the dyad as a social unit. Disruption to the conversation is kept to a minimum, with the two-utterance repair sequence being on average no longer that the single utterance which is being fixed. The findings, controlled for historical relationships, situation types and other dependencies, reveal the fundamentally cooperative nature of human communication and offer support for the pragmatic universals hypothesis: while languages may vary in the organization of grammar and meaning, key systems of language use may be largely similar across cultural groups. They also provide a fresh perspective on controversies about the core properties of language, by revealing a common infrastructure for social interaction which may be the universal bedrock upon which linguistic diversity rests.
Description: This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Public Library of Science under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136100
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/20486
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136100
ISSN: 1932-6203
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Social Sciences)

Files associated with this item:

File Description SizeFormat
Universal Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems.pdfPublished version717.75 kBAdobe PDFView/Open


SFX Query

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.