Protein biomarkers are important diagnostic tools for detection of non-communicable diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular conditions. In order to be used as diagnostic tools they need to be detected at very low concentrations in biological samples (e.g. whole blood, serum or urine). This has been currently performed in central laboratories using expensive, bulky equipment and time consuming assays. [Continues.]
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.