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Title: The effect of a post-activation annealing treatment on thin film CdTe device performance
Authors: Abbas, Ali
Swanson, Drew E.
Munshi, Amit
Barth, Kurt L.
Sampath, Walajabad S.
West, G.D.
Bowers, Jake W.
Kaminski, Piotr M.
Walls, Michael
Keywords: CdTe
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: © IEEE
Citation: ABBAS, A. ...et al., 2015. The effect of a post-activation annealing treatment on thin film CdTe device performance. Presented at the IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), New Orleans, 14-19 Jun 2015.
Abstract: The cadmium chloride activation treatment of cadmium telluride solar cells is essential for producing high efficiency devices. The treatment has many effects but the most significant is the complete removal of stacking faults in the cadmium telluride grains and the diffusion of Chlorine along the grain boundaries of the device. Chlorine decorates all cadmium telluride and cadmium sulphide grain boundaries and also builds up along the CdTe/CdS junction. . This paper reveals that by annealing devices to temperatures of 400ºC to 480 ºC for times ranging from 30 to 600 seconds in moderate vacuum results in the re-appearance of stacking faults and the removal of Choline from the grain boundaries. STEM analysis confirms the re-appearance of the stacking faults and SIMS and EDX confirm the removal of chlorine from the grain boundaries. This directly corresponds to a lowering in cell efficiency. The study provides further evidence that CdCl2 diffusion and certain microstructural defects directly affect the performance of cadmium telluride photovoltaic devices.
Description: Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Sponsor: The Loughborough authors are grateful to UKERC for financial assistance through the EPSRC Supergen SuperSolar Hub and the CSU authors to the NSF I/UCRC and AIR programs.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356441
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/20608
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356441
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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