NJIRU and SANSOM, 2001. Strategic marketing of urban water supplies. IN: Scott, R. (ed). People and systems for water, sanitation and health: Proceedings of the 27th WEDC International Conference, Lusaka, Zambia, 20-24 August 2001.
Many urban water utilities and municipalities are not providing water services directly to a high proportion of the city population (50-70% in some cities). People who do not receive water services from the utilities often rely on water vendors, to whom they pay high prices, or they use alternative water sources, often at high cost, that may be contaminated.