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|Title: ||Magnetic and transport properties of sputtered iron-aluminium films under vacuum|
|Authors: ||Zayer, Nadhum K.|
|Issue Date: ||1993|
|Publisher: ||© Nadhum Kadhum Zayer|
|Abstract: ||Sputter deposition is one of the vapour quenching methods used to produce alloying
compounds in thin film form. The alloying compounds produced by this method have a
chemically homogeneous, non-equilibrium structure which is dill'erent from that of
alloys produced by solid quenching, liquid quenching, or mechanical alloying methods.
In the present investigation the Fe 1-:x.A1x alloy thin films were prepared using multisource
magnetron sputtering. The samples were deposited onto a water cooled
substrate and their thickness was kept constant at t- 300nm. To investigate the effect
of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films, the samples were deposited
at various argon gas pressures PAr I, 3, or 4 mtorr. The effect of gas pressure is
consistent with the thermalization of the deposited material by collisions with gas
atoms in the chamber. The composition range of the samples varied from pure iron to
The composition, structure and morphology of the films was obtained using
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction patterns were also used to
obtain the structure of the films. Structure analysis showed that a bcc crystalline
structure was obtained in samples of composition range x= 0 to - 50%, an amorphous
structure in samples of composition range x- 55% to - 83%, and a fcc crystalline
structure in samples of composition range x- 85% to 100%. These composition ranges
are affected by altering the deposition gas pressure.
The morphology of the deposited films was observed to be affected by the deposition
gas pressure. The samples deposited at low gas pressure Par=1 mtorr consist of a
fibrous structure with densely packed boundaries, while the samples deposited at high
gas pressure Par=4 mtorr consist of columnar structures separated by open
Room temperature resistivity measurements show a drop in resistivity in the
composition range x- 30% to 50%. This drop is thought to be due to the formation of
chemically ordered Fe3Al and FeAI compounds. Also the resistivity increases with
increasing argon gas pressure. The effect of altering the argon gas pressure is to
change the morphology of these alloys, and this has a significant effect on the magnetic
properties. The effect of annealing on the magnetisation and morphology was also
studied in the samples.
A low temperature resistivity measurement system was constructed. A closed cycle
helium refrigerator, which provided a working temperature range of T= l5°K to 3000K
was used for the cooling process. The resistivity measurements revealed three distinct
characteristics dependent on composition :-
1. x= 0 to 46%: The samples in this range exhibit a metallic behaviour, with the
samples in the composition range x= 27% to 46% showing a resistivity minimum at
low temperature which is thought to be due to spin glass formation.
2. x= 48% to 83%: These samples have a semiconductor or metallic glass-like
3. x= 85% to 100%: These samples show a metallic behaviour.
The above properties are associated with the change in the structure of the fiIrns as the
A computer controlled AC susceptometer was designed and constructed to measure
the AC susceptibility of the samples in the temperature range T= 20 OK to T= 300 OK.
A closed cycle helium refrigerator was used to provide the cooling process. The AC
susceptibility measurements for the samples with resistivity minima show a sharp peak
at low temperature which confirms the presence of spin glass in these samples at low
The results of magnetic and transport properties can be related to the structure and
morphology of the filrns. The results have been compared with those obtained from
bulk samples with the same composition.|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Physics)|
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