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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/21548

Title: Numerical investigation on the in-cylinder flow with SI and CAI valve timings
Authors: Beauquel, Julien A.
Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics
Controlled auto ignition
Chemical kinetics
Laser doppler anemometry
Homogeneous charge compression ignition
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: © Julien Aymeric Beauquel
Abstract: The principle of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) is to mix fuel and air homogeneously before compressing the mixture to the point of auto-ignition. As ignition occurs simultaneously, CAI engines operate with lean mixtures preventing high cylinder pressures. CAI engines produce small amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to low combustion temperatures while maintaining high compression ratios and engine efficiencies. Due to simultaneous combustion and lean mixtures, CAI engines are restricted between low and mid load operations. Various strategies have been studied to improve the load limit of CAI engines. The scope of the project is to investigate the consequences of varying valve timing, as a method to control the mixture temperature within the combustion chamber and therefore, controlling the mixture auto-ignition point. This study presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling results of transient flow, inside a 0.45 litre Lotus single cylinder engine. After a validation process, a chemical kinetics model is combined with the CFD code, in order to study in-cylinder temperatures, the mixture distribution during compression and to predict the auto-ignition timing. The first part of the study focuses on validating the calculated in-cylinder velocities. A mesh sensitivity study is performed as well as a comparison of different turbulence models. A method to reduce computational time of the calculations is presented. The effects of engine speed on charge delay and charge amount inside the cylinder, the development of the in-cylinder flow field and the variation of turbulence parameters during the intake and compression stroke, are studied. The second part of the study focuses on the gasoline mixture and the variation of the valve timing, to retain different ratios of residual gases within the cylinder. After validation of the model, a final set of CFD calculations is performed, to investigate the effects of valve timing on flow and the engine parameters. The results are then compared to a fully homogeneous mixture model to study the benefits of varying valve duration. New key findings and contributions to CAI knowledge were found in this investigation. Reducing the intake and exhaust valve durations created a mixture temperature stratification and a fuel concentration distribution, prior to auto-ignition. It resulted in extending the heat release rate duration, improving combustion. However, shorter valve timing durations also showed an increase in heat transfer, pumping work and friction power, with a decrease of cylinder indicated efficiency. Valve timing, as a method to control auto-ignition, should only be used when the load limit of CAI engines, is to be improved.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/21548
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering)

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