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Title: Determinants for intention to change travel mode choice behaviour of NHS hospital staff
Authors: Khandokar, Fahmida
Keywords: Travel plan
Travel behaviour
Hospital staff
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: © Fahmida Khandokar
Abstract: The UK’s NHS is the largest employer in Europe with approximately 1.3 million staff. Around 83% of the journeys associated with the NHS are made by private car. In this context, every healthcare authority was required to produce a travel plan by December 2010, including an emphasis on promoting walking and cycling as a means of accessing hospitals. Evidence shows that although the take–up of travel plans is increasing across the NHS, the impact of travel plans in promoting walking as a travel option is relatively low among hospital staff. A scoping study has been conducted aiming to bridge the gap between research and practice by capturing the views of the NHS representatives on hospital travel plans by a nationwide survey and review of hospital travel plans. The survey findings show that despite having a high potential to promote walking as a key travel option among the hospital staff, the measures to promote walking were cited as the least effective. A Spearman’s ⇢ correlation coefficient test was performed to evaluate the correlation between travel plan measures to promote walking and restrictive measures to reduce the use of cars. The results show that the effectiveness of measures to reduce the use of cars is positively correlated with the effectiveness of measures to promote walking. The effectiveness of travel plan measures to secure the targeted outcome is attributed to the methods used to address the determinants for changing travel behaviour whilst designing travel plan measures and the successful adoption of innovative strategies in the given context. A theoretical framework has been developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and five key research hypotheses have been proposed to demonstrate the key determinants for changing travel behaviour. The analysis was based on a nationwide survey among the NHS hospital staff in England in 2013. There were 863 completed responses, out of which 459 responses were from hospital staff, who solely relied on car journeys for commuting purposes. Structural equation modelling was performed to investigate the effects of socio–economic, psychological and situational factors in determining intention to change travel behaviour among the car users only. The model estimation results show that the effects of cognitive attitude towards walking and objective mobility were significant on determining intention to change travel behaviour. The respondents exhibited a habitual nature of travel behaviour, which is characterised by longer commuting distance and journey time than the national UK average. The practical implications of the study were addressed by providing recommendations that need to be considered whilst designing travel plan measures. The recommendations were based on the concept of Model for Planned Promotion. This study provides a basis for further conceptualisation of travel behaviour change and identifies several areas that need further investigation in relation to designing interventions to promote walking in the context of healthcare.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
Sponsor: EPSRC
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/21570
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering)

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